wet finish
  • wet finish



    Made with mechanical methods or chemical substances to improve the handle, appearance and usage properties of textile products. finishing (finishing) operations It called. What are impacted teeth? When one or more teeth fails to grow in the correct position and is therefore held below the normal gum line, it is called an impaction. This can be complete, such as completely unerrupted (buried) third molars (wisdom teeth) or partial when just part of the tooth is visible in the mouth. Why are impactions important? For best function and appearance the teeth should grow in a healthy alignment. When one or more teeth is impacted, this can affect the function of that tooth but also the function and appearance of other teeth. Whether all impactions should be treated is still controversial and your dentist and oral and maxillofacial team can explain the advantages and disadvantages or treatment for you, which is usually surgical.


    In the past, the main purpose of finishing processes was to make the buyer want to buy, that is, to increase the appeal of the product. This was achieved by improving attitude and appearance. However, due to the emergence of synthetic fibers and changing living conditions, the issue of giving natural fibers some additional properties (such as wrinkle resistance) without losing their unique good properties has come to the fore. Thus, it would be possible for natural fibers to compete with synthetic fibers. This trend has led to the emergence of finishing processes to improve the use properties of textiles.


    Another improvement was in the durability (permanence) of the effects obtained by finishing processes. In the past, since the main purpose of the finishing process was to arouse the buyer's desire to buy, the durability of the effects obtained was not given much importance. Today, it is often enough to give the textile product some features, but these features are required to be resistant to use, especially to washing.


    These processes are examined in two large groups.


    1.Chemical finishing processes (wet finishing processes)


    2.Mechanical finishing processes (dry finishing processes)


    Chemical Finishing Processes (Wet Finishing)


    The basis of the chemical finishing process, which is also defined as finishing, is based on bringing the finishing materials into contact with the textile product according to any application (pulling, impregnation, spraying, rubbing, etc.) method, while binding the finishing agent to the fibers.


    Since a solution containing a finishing agent is used for the application, these processes age-end processes is called. In chemical finishing processes, the finishing agents applied to the product bind to the fibers, and thus changes occur in the fiber's behavior, appearance or usage properties of the product.


    1-Attitude Finishing


    Handle finishing is the finishing of optionally improving or changing the tactile properties of the fabric. Due to the nature of textile products or as a result of various chemical processes, their behavior does not perform adequately. For this reason, before it is put on the market, it is necessary to give the fabric a handle finishing according to its quality and place of use.


    Types of attitude finishing;

    • Hardening
    • Softening and lubrication
    • Plumping Up
    • aggro
    • It is Grifaj.


    2-Sewing Finish


    Sewing facilitating finish is a form of finish applied to threads or fabrics, or both, to facilitate movement of the sewing thread and insertion of the needle into the fabric. The purpose of this process is to reduce damage to fabrics and sewing threads or to prevent the sewing needle from overheating. For this purpose, mostly polyethylene emulsions are used. The softening effect of polyethylene emulsions is low and the lubricating effect is high. It prevents the needle from heating up.


    3-Permanent Ironing Finish (Permanent Press)


    In clothing, certain shapes such as folds and pleats; It is a finishing process for gaining durability to be resistant to normal use, washing or dry cleaning.

    Permanent ironing; It is not a special textile finishing process, but rather a term that complements garments or other sewn products that do not require ironing and retain their ironed appearance even after many washings and wearings.


    4-Anti-Crinkle Finish


    Textile materials are exposed to a wide range of deformations caused by wrinkling, wrinkling, bending, folding, and body movements during production and use. Although fold marks provide ease of use, less maintenance and a fashionable appearance to the fabric, in some cases it is not desired at all. It can be stated that these are generally seen on the back of the trousers, under the hip lines of the skirts and trousers. In order for a garment to maintain its good appearance, unwanted fold marks that occur during use and washing must be removed in a short time either by itself or by ironing.


    We can list the factors affecting wrinkling as follows;


    • Thread number
    • Surface structure of the yarn
    • Surface structure of tissue
    • yarn twist
    • Whether the yarn is single ply or ply
    • The water-loving structure of the fiber
    • Stress environments encountered during finishing processes
    • Warp and weft density in weaving
    • The morphological structure of the fiber


    The wet or dry environment is a factor on the severity of the wrinkling effect. When the acting force is removed, the newly formed equilibrium state is not completely disrupted, so the fibers and thus the fabric become wrinkled. The wrinkling effect of the texture, which is a disadvantage, can be eliminated by the crease-free finishing process applied to ensure the ease of use and maintenance required in all cellulose-based textile products that are made into ready-made products. In order to prevent the tendency to wrinkle in fabrics, it can be made difficult for the crystals to slide relative to each other.


    There are two possibilities to do this;


    • It can be made by the mechanism of action of resin-forming substances. If the spaces between the crystallites are filled with any substance (forming resin), it will be difficult for water to enter these areas, and when any force is applied, it will be difficult for the crystals to slide relative to each other.
    • It is to perform the cross-link formation between the crystallites by applying the treatment with bifunctional compounds that can react with the cellulose macromolecule. In this way, since the mobility of the crystals will be restricted, they will be prevented from moving away from each other due to the penetration of water molecules and sliding under the influence of force.


    Substances used in anti-crease finishing


    • Urea- Formaldehyde
    • Melamine- Formaldehyde
    • Dimethylol Ethyleneurea
    • DMPU
    • DMDHEU


    Difference of Wrinkle-Free Finish and Permanent Ironing Finish:


    In the non-crease finishing process; A fabric with anti-crease feature is sent to the confectioner.


    In the permanent ironing finishing process; The fabric, which has been impregnated with anti-crease materials and dried, but whose condensation process has not been completed, is sent. After the confectioner cuts the fabric and transforms it into a garment, or by ironing at high temperature at the intermediate ironing stage, the condensation process is completed in the fabric with an appliqué crease-free finishing material.


    5-Wash & Wear Finishing (No Ironing Finishing)


    The term “wash and wear” is the commercial name for fabrics with an easy-care finish. It is the feature that textile products can be reused after washing without the need for ironing or with a little ironing. “This applies not only to the upper fabric, but also to the lining and accessories.


    6-Water Repellent Finish


    Textile materials generally get wet in contact with water. For this reason, wetting is prevented by water-repellent finishing, and the comfort of clothing is preserved thanks to the porous structure of the water-repellent finishing process. Since these pores are at the micron level, they allow small molecules of water vapor and air molecules to escape. However, since the water molecules are larger, they cannot enter through these pores, so the garment is protected against water.


    The water repellency process is carried out by two methods;


    • 1- With the coating method, the surface of the fabric is completely covered and water repellency is provided. In this method, water repellency is high, but the fabric is also airtight and this does not allow skin respiration.
    • 2-Water-repellent surface is obtained by covering the fibers of the yarns forming the fabric with a very thin, hydrophobic membrane with various chemicals. This membrane is attached to the fibers by attractive forces or covalent bonds. Although this method does not cause any change in the appearance of the fabric, since the pores of the fabric are not closed, water vapor transmission is ensured, but the water repellency provided remains at a limited level.


    Substances Used in Water Repellency Finishing


    • Aluminum and Zirconium Compounds
    • Paraffin Pushers
    • Metal Complexes
    • Pyridinium Compounds
    • Stearic Acid-Methnol Compounds
    • Melamine and Stearyl Based Water Repellents
    • Silicone Water Repellents
    • Propellants Containing Fluorine


    7-Waterproof Finishing


    The waterproofing finishing process is based on covering the surface of the fabric with a waterproof layer. By completely covering the surface and pores of the fabric, water does not penetrate the back of the fabric even in long and heavy rains. Despite the advantage of impermeability, the disadvantage of the process is that it does not allow skin respiration and the surface of the fabric is not visible. One of the most important features in technical textiles is the waterproof feature.


    In water repellency, the fabric resists wetting and water drops flow from the fabric surface. Another feature of water-repellent fabrics is; products are air and moisture permeable. waterproof fabrics On the other hand, it is resistant to higher hydrostatic pressure than water-repellent fabrics, and since these fabrics have fewer pores, they have lower air and moisture permeability. As the water permeability of the fabric improves, its air and moisture permeability properties deteriorate. Therefore, producing materials with these two properties has become the main goal for manufacturers and customers have turned to fabrics that are both waterproof and breathable. These types of fabrics have been developed with various methods for difficult weather conditions and special uses.


    8-Dirt and Oil Repellent Finishing


    It is difficult to obtain results that can be effective for all soils with a single treatment for dirt repellency, since the way the dirt structure affects the textile surface and adheres to the textile surface is very different.


    Dirt formation is basically divided into two as dry and wet pollution forms;


    • 1-Dry contamination, all kinds of dust and pollutant particles; It can be in the form of being filtered by textiles (curtain), precipitation on textiles (flooring) or attracting each other with other pollutants by electrostatic charge (synthetics).
    • 2-Wet soiling contaminates the textile by pouring watery dirt or oily watery dirt directly onto the textile.


    Another important form of contamination is sofas, sofas, etc. It is the contamination of the fabric in layers by smearing the oils and dirt on the fabric during the continuous use of such upholstery. Here is one of the finishing processes, by applying dirt-repellent treatments to the fabrics, preventing the fabrics from getting dirty quickly during their use.


    The concepts in dirt repellent are as follows;


    • Direct dirt repellant effect (stain repellant)
    • Soil-release effect that provides easy removal of dirt during washing
    • Antisoil-redeposition effect


    Some of the chemicals used in the dirt-repellent finishing processes open during washing and have a swelling effect, allowing the dirt to come off the fabric more easily and move away, as well as preventing the graying effects that may occur during washing by sticking the dirt in the liquor back onto the fabric. However, the main effect desired to be achieved is the direct dirt-repellent effect. This effect is an effect that prevents or reduces the adhesion of dirt to the fabric and its penetration into the fabric. For this purpose, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, aluminum trioxide, etc., are applied to the fabric in the simplest way so that dry dirt does not adhere to the fabric and penetrate into the fabric. It is possible to give the fabric a dry dirt-repellent effect by transferring colorless pigments such as In fact, a process using fillers together with starch or other synthetic hardeners provides the same effect until the first wash.


    In wet dirt repellent finishing processes; If a fabric has undergone water repellent treatment and any dirt has come to the fabric as an aqueous emulsion, the soiling effect of the dirt can be prevented by removing the dirt with an absorbent cloth while it is on the surface without penetrating the fabric. If not; If the dirt has come to the fabric as an oily emulsion or if the oily substances have the effect of contaminating the fabric, then it is applied to that fabric. fluorocarbon compounds must be finished with. Various dirt repellants are available. All of this ultimately makes the fiber more hygroscopic. Thus, they facilitate removal by creating a better wetting effect.


    Substances Used in Dirt and Oil Repellent Finishing


    • fluorocarbons
    • Acrylic Acid Ester Compounds
    • Perflora Alkyl Groups
    • Ethyleneoxide
    • Hydrophilic Softeners
    • silicon dioxide
    • Polyalkyleneoxide Derivatives
    • titanium dioxide
    • Aluminum trioxide
    • tin oxide
    • Pva and PVC
    • Zirconium dioxide


    9-Power Flammability Finish


    It is done in order to ensure that the textile material (fiber, yarn, fabric or finished product) resists fire, slows down the burning rate if it is ignited, and stops the combustion itself shortly after the flame is removed. There are 3 types for obtaining flame retardant textile products.


    • These Ones;
    • 1- Use of certain fibers with flame retardant properties
    • 2- Adding flame retardant compounds during the production of synthetic fibers, before they are drawn as fibers, in order to impart non-flammable properties.
    • 3- It is the application of flame retardant finishing process to the textile product.














    10-Antistatic Finishing


    As a result of static electricity occurring in synthetic fibers, the clothes stick to the body. It also gets dirty much more easily and is uncomfortable when removing the garment. Antistatic finishing is a finishing process that prevents static electricity.


    Features of antistatic finish;


    • 1-Prevents sticking and slipping on textiles worn on the skin
    • 2-Makes it less susceptible to dirt
    • 3-Reduces the tendency to wrinkle
    • 4-It provides better sweat transmission.


    Antistatic finishing agents


    • Alkyl Polyglycol Ethersulfates
    • Phosphorus Acid Esters
    • Phosphorus Acid Ester Ethoxyl Alcohols
    • Ammonium Salts of Phosphorus Acid Esters
    • Amine Oxide
    • ethoxylamine
    • Fatty Acid Amide Polyglycolether
    • Fatty Acid Polyglycol Esters


    11-Antipilling Finishing (antipilling finishing)


    In products made of synthetic fibers, small fiber deposits occur on the fabric surface depending on the use. These are in the form of beads and are unsightly when attached to the fabric. This situation is not observed in fabrics with antipilling finishing process.. Antipilling finishing agents are acrylic and vinyl polymers.


    12-Non-Sealing Finishing


    Scale layer in wool fibers;


    • Heat
    • Extremely basic and acidic


    It becomes felted by curling in the environment and entering into a mixed structure with other fibers. For this reason, shrinkage occurs in the fabric in terms of length and width. The finishing process, which is done so that the customer does not shrink while using the product, is called anti-felt finishing.


    13-Mothproof Finish


    Insects such as moths damage the fiber by disrupting the structure of all protein fibers, especially wool. Although removal of these harmful insects from the fiber is provided with mothballs or similar poisons, it is not a very healthy method. Moth-proof finishing materials and protein fiber are finished to prevent moth from dwelling on the fabric.


    14-Antibacterial Finishing


    Since textile materials provide a suitable environment for bacterial growth, antibacterial application is made to give textile materials functional properties against harmful bacteria. The concept, which is expressed with the term hygiene as a special term, is the creation and protection of healthy conditions in textile materials.


    There are different methods of gaining antibacterial activity according to the area where the fibers will be used.


    These Ones;

    • 1-Placing Antibacterial Agents in Fiber Structure; This method is applied in synthetic filaments. During fiber spinning, agents are placed in the polymer. Thus, even in fiber abrasions, the antibacterial property persists.
    • 2-Surface Applications; This technique can be applied to all fibers, and the antibacterial property may be partially or completely destroyed in fiber abrasions.
    • 3-Chemical Coupling: Although it is the best way to ensure durability in terms of antibacterial properties, it is necessary to have suitable reactive groups in different crystalline structures and on natural or synthetic textile surfaces in order to create such a surface.









    15-Antimicrobial Finishing


    Microorganisms are found in the air we breathe, in our bodies, in the soil and on all surfaces we come into contact with. Especially bacteria can cause deterioration and staining of textile products as well as health-related problems such as infection, disease, odor. Natural fibers such as cotton are more susceptible to microbial problems than synthetic fibers due to their porous, hydrophilic structure. On the other hand, the human body provides heat, moisture and nutrients to the bacteria in the clothes that come into direct contact with it, that is, it offers a perfect environment and suitable conditions for bacterial growth. Since the harms of microorganisms in textile products have been known for a long time, the applications in this field are also old. Inorganic salts, spices and herbs used by the Egyptians to protect the fabrics they wrapped mummies are among the oldest practices in this regard.


    Finishing of antimicrobial chemicals on fabrics made of natural and synthetic fibers, conventional extraction and impregnation methods with widely used. Spraying and coating methods can also be used in the application of antimicrobial chemicals.


    Since textile fibers have high surface areas, moisture absorption properties and create a suitable living environment for bacteria, their presence/proliferation feature on the fiber emerges. With the presence of bacteria on the fiber/textile product, unwanted odor formation, allergic disorders on the skin and negative effects on the mechanical properties of textile materials may occur.








    by %AM, 20% 355% 2020 10%:%May in Paint-Finish Read 2683 times

wet finish